Control over the Heat Capacity of Water

Control over the Heat Capacity of Water

V.G. Krasnobryzhev

 

According to the classical definition, the specific heat capacity of a substance СV is the physical quantity numerically equal to the amount of heat needed to change the temperature of 1 kg  of a substance by 10С. Though this definition is classical and was remarkably confirmed in experiments, there are known a number of cases where the behavior of heat capacity does not coincide with that required by theory. For example, the behavior of the heat capacity of gases (at a constant pressure) at low temperatures did not correspond to the theoretical prediction, and the atomic heat capacity of some solids (e.g., diamond) was twice less than the theoretical value. This is related to the existence of quanta.

In 1907, A. Einstein explained the puzzle disagreements between the theory and experimental measurements of the specific heat capacity of bodies on the basis of the notion of quantum. By his theory, the specific heat capacity can be represented by the formula [1]

where R is the universal gas constant (8.3 J/mole·K), ν is the frequency of an oscillator, ħ is Planck’s constant (1.06·10-34 J s), k is the Boltzmann constant (1.4·10 –23 J/K), and Т is the temperature.

It follows from this relation that, in two limiting cases as Т ® 0 or Т ® ¥, it agrees with experiments:

 

Though the Debye theory leads to significantly better results, while calculating the specific heat capacity, we will use the Einstein equation. There, νħ/kT = S is the entropy. Hence Eq. (1) can be written in the form:

 

In fluids and solids, the essential share of the internal energy of a substance is presented by the potential energy, in addition to the kinetic energy of the heat motion of atoms and/or molecules. The potential energy is determined by the interaction of atoms or molecules and by their mutual location. The fluctuations of the potential energy determine the heat capacity of a system at a constant temperature.

It is also known that the potential energy of the interaction between particles depends on the relative orientation of their spins. The energy gain of a state with definite relative orientation of spins explains the phenomena of ferromagnetism and antiferromagnetism and determines the character of a number of chemical transformations [2].

The entropy of a system with regard for the distribution of nuclear spins can be written in the form:

S = ln(N/N+), where N and N+ are the populations of energy levels.

Under the condition of thermodynamic equilibrium, let N+  < N, i.e., there is the excess of nuclear spins on the lowest energy level. Let this difference be very small; e.g., for 1000000 spins on the level N+, we have 1000007 spins on the level N [3].

Using Eq. (2), we now calculate the heat capacity under the condition of thermodynamic equilibrium in view of the relation S = ln(N/N+) = ln(1000007/1000000):

 

In the case where the difference of spin “populations” of the energy levels will increase, the heat capacity will vary. For example, if S = ln (100000/1900000), the heat capacity decreases and becomes equal to

On the basis of the above consideration, we can conclude that a decrease of the heat capacity at room (293 K and more) temperature can be attained due to a change of the “populations” of energy quantum levels by nuclear spins. In this case, of particular interest are such spin states, in which the maximally possible number of spins is present on a single quantum level representing one of the oscillatory eigenfrequencies of the material medium. The spin-spin interactions expand an ordered orientation of the characteristic angular momenta of some nuclear particles onto other particles and induce the establishment of their single (with regard for the precession) orientation [4, 5]. Such a state is referred to the coherent ones. In this case due to the spin-lattice interaction, the heat capacity of the material medium will be decreased [6].

The principles of the creation of a System of coherentization of water are presented in [7].

The studies of the influence of the coherent state of water on its heat capacity were carried out with the use of a calorimeter KL-10.

The performance of a calorimeter is as follows: a pressure of 28 atm; oxygen – 100%; heated medium is water with forced circulation; the temperature gage is a semiconductive thermoresistance; the accuracy of measurements of the temperature is ± 0.0010С.

The ideology of studies consisted in the following. Due to a decrease of the heat capacity of water in the calorimeter caused by its passage to the spin coherent state, water in the calorimeter should be more rapidly heated in 1 min after the burning of coal in the calorimetric cylinder. In Fig. 1, we present the scheme of the experiment.

1 – generator of spin states (GSS), 2 – resonator of spin states, 3 — chip-translator,

4 – calorimeter KL-10, 5 – vessel with heated water, 6 – chip-inductor,

7 – specimen of coal in the calorimetric cylinder, 8 – temperature gage

 

In the vessel with heated water 5, we placed chip-inductor 6, which is connected with chip-translator 3 throught the quantum connection channel, which exists due to the physics of entangled quantum states. The chip-translator was placed in resonator of spin states 2 connected with GSS 1 .

In the calorimetric cylinder, we positioned specimens of coal 7 1 g in weight and a caloricity of 5460±20 kcal/kg; the fraction composition of coal was in the interval 0.6 – 0.8 mm.

After the switching-on of GSS 1, resonator of spin states 2 is excited to the required level. Simultaneously with the excitation of the resonator 2, chip-translator 3 is excited, by realizing the translation of the spin excitation to chip-inductor 6 due to the effect of entangled quantum states. The chip-inductor executes the spin pumping of water in vessel 5 and transfers it in the continuously supported spin coherent state.

The numbers of measurements:

5 – for water in the equilibrium state,

5 – for water in the coherent state.

On the basis of statistical data on the results of studies, we constructed the plots for the water temperature variation in the calorimeter in 1 and 2 min after the burning of coal (Fig. 2).

It is seen from the plots presented in Fig. 2 that, for the first minute after the burning of coal, the rate of heating of water in the coherent state is twice higher than that for water in the equilibrium state. In 2 min, this effect decreases, which is related to an increase of the heat scattering intensity.

On the basis of the calorimetric studies, it is possible to conclude that the transfer of water in the spin coherent state decreases its heat capacity by a factor of 2.

 

References

 

  1. Николаев Л.А., Тулупов В.А. Физическая химия. М. 1964, с. 441.
  1. Физический энциклопедический словарь. — М.: Советская энциклопедия, 1984.
  2. J. Tritt-Goc. Relaksacja w jadrowym rezonansie magnetycznym./Elektronowy rezonans paramagnetyczny. Podstawy spektroskopii impulsowej. Poznan, 1997, s. 139.
  3. Эткин В.А. О специфике спин- спиновых взаимодействий. // Электронный журнал “Наука и техника”, 2.02. 2002.
  4. Эткин В.А. Об ориентационном взаимодействии спинирующих систем // Электронный журнал “Наука и техника”, 19.06.2002.
  5. Careri G. Ordine e Disordine Nella Materia. Laterza, 1982. – 232 p.
  6. Krasnobryzhev V. Sposób I urządzenie do modyfikacji paliwa. Patent Nr. 207357 Rzeczypospolitej Polskiej.

 

Viktor Krasnobryzhev

 

e-mail vkentron@gmail.com

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