A Technology of Modification of Oil In the Processes of Refining

A Technology of Modification of Oil

In the Processes of Refining

 

V.G. Krasnobryzhev

 

The technology is based on the method of transfer of oil in the coherent state, which is realized by means of the generation of spin waves with the same phase or the same difference of phases on the resonance frequency of oil or on the frequency of one of its harmonics. In this case with the purpose to intensify the technological process in the resonance way, the frequency of the coherent state of oil is synchronous to the frequency of the heat field acting on oil in the technological process.

 

Coherence is determined by the appearance of correlations (interconnections and interrelations) between elements of the system. The stronger the correlation between events, the higher the degree of order in the system. The huge number of elements chaotically moving demonstrate the coordinated behavior on the macrolevel. The system behaves itself as if every element is informed about a state of the system. The system acquires new properties not inherent to the objects composing it (emergence). The system reacts to an external action as a whole. The elements of the system start to act in a concerted way and manifest properties not inherent to a single particle. The coherent systems are characterized by a nonlinear reaction to an external action: at a small value of external signal, the reaction energy can be quite significant.

 

As is known, in order to realize the process of rectification including the break or formation of valence bonds of СН-molecules, it is necessary to continuously supply a definite amount of energy to overcome the energy barrier called the activation energy.

At the same time, the coherent state of oil leads to a decrease of the activation energy. As a result, the amount of energy needed for the realization of the processes of refining of oil decreases, and this unused part is directed immediately into the process as an additional useful energy.

For example, the rate of breaking or formation of valence bonds for СН-molecules is determined by the formula

where N – number of valence bonds, t – time,  Еа — activation energy, k – Boltzmann constant, and Т — temperature.

 

The unit aimed at the transition of oil in the coherent state is shown in Fig. 1.

1 – generator of spin states, 2 – resonator of spin states,

3 – chip-translator, 4 – chip-inductor,  5 – tank with oil.

 

As an alternative example, we present the results of studies of a change of the activation energy of brown coal in the equilibrium and coherent states, which were performed at the Technical University of Częstochowa (Poland). The transfer of coal in the coherent state yields a decrease of the activation energy by 56.7% as compared with that in the equilibrium state       (Fig. 2). This testifies to a decrease of the energy barrier in the coherent state of coal, which should be overcome at its combustion.

Fig. 2

 

The studies of the influence of the spin coherent state of oil on the efficiency of its rectification were carried out with the use of the Engler apparatus (Fig. 3), according to GOST 2177-82, “Oil products. Methods of determination of fraction composition”.

Fig. 3. Scheme of experiments

 

1 – generator of spin states (GSS), 2 – resonator of spin states of oil, 3 — chip-translator, 4 – chip-inductor, 5 – flask with heated oil, 6 – heater, 7 – cooler, 8 – tank

 

The switching-on of GSS 1 causes the spin saturation of oil in resonator of spin states 2 up to the required coherent уровня. Simultaneously with the excitation of the resonator, there occurs the excitation of chip-translator 3, which transfers the spin excitation to chip-inductor 4 due to the effect of entangled quantum states. The chip-inductor causes the spin saturation of oil in flask 5.

The experiments were carried out in 2 stages.

Этап 1 – spin saturation of oil with exposure durations of 97 and 127 sec, with the subsequent flashing at temperatures up to 180ОС (Appendix 1).

Этап 2 – spin saturation of oil up to the coherent state No. 1 and 12, with the subsequent flashing at temperatures 180 — 300ОС (Appendix 2).

The statistically reliable number of experiments –  3.

After the cooling of products of the rectification in a cooler, we measured their volume, took samples, and determined the composition on a chromatograph HEWLETT PACKARD 5890 став.

The results of experiments are presented in Tables 1 and 2.

 

Tables 1

 

 

Hydrocarbons

       The output of hydrocarbons (%) after distillation of crude oil

to the 180OC depending on the exposure time of the spin-saturation

equilibrium

state

impact

97 сек

impact

127 сек

  Butane, isopentane, n-pentane,

2-methylpentane, n-hexane

3-methylpentane, —

Other –

 

 

19,0

2,3

 

 

9,2

0,4

 

 

10,7

0,2

  2.4 dimethilpentane, benzene,

methilhexsane, 3-methilexsane,

n-heptane, dimethilhexsane –

Other –

 

 

16,7

2,9

 

 

20,0

3,8

 

 

19,1

3,8

  Toluene, methylheptane, n-octane,

Other —

17,8

4,4

25,1

5,8

20,7

7,6

  Trimethylhexane, 3-methyloctane,

Dimethylheptane, xylene, n-nonan —

Other —

 

23,0

3,7

 

24,0

3,2

 

26,1

4,2

Other lower n-nonane — 10,2 11,5 7,6

 

Table 2

 

 

Hydrocarbons

The output of hydrocarbons (%) after distillation of crude oil

at 180-300OC depending on its spin state

equilibrium

state

coherent state

(level 1)

coherent state

(level 12)

С8 + С9 8,5 11,5 17,8
С 8+ С9 + С10 18,4 22,7 31,5
С8 + … + С 11 30,6 35,2 44,8
С 8 + … + С12 43,5 48 57,3
С 8 + … + С13 59,1 59,1 70,4
С 8 + … + С14 72,8 75,4 78,8
С 8 + … + С15 84 86,3 86,3
С 8 + … + С16 90,5 92,1 92,1
С 8 + … + С17 95 96,4 96,4
С 8 + … + С18 96,44 97,5 97,5
С 8 + … + С19 98,1 98,3 98,3

 

For the determination of catalytic properties under the spin saturation (spin catalysis), we executed the experiment with gasoline with the purpose to change a composition of hydrocarbon fractions. The exposure durations were 60, 97, and 127 sec. The composition of hydrocarbons was determined on a chromatograph HEWLETT PACKARD 5890.

The statistically reliable number of experiments –  3.

In Fig. 4, we show the variation of the content of hydrocarbons in gasoline А-76 as a function of the spin saturation duration.

Fractions: I – butane…n-hexane, II – 2,4-dimethylpentane…benzene,

III – methyl hexane …methylpentane, IV – lower than methylheptane…n-octane,

V – lower than n- octane … dimethylheptane, VI – lower than dimethylheptane…n-nonane

 

 

The analysis of the data obtained in experiments indicates that the spin saturation and the coherent state of oil and its products cause a change of their hydrocarbon composition.

In addition, the coherent state of oil products decreases the energy consumption at the rectification, which is seen from the below-presented results of laboratory studies.

 

  1. Krasnobryzhev

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vkentron@gmail.com

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