Coherent Steel in the Process of Thermal Annealing

Coherent Steel in the Process of Thermal Annealing

 V. Krasnobryzhev


The analysis of the state of modern technologies in the metallurgical industry allows one to conclude that their development is mainly realized on the way of the improvement of technologies and technological facilities oriented to a decrease of both the energy consumption and the labor expenditure.

In the calculations of technological processes, one uses frequently the following equation for the rate of processes (recrystallization, diffusive dissolution, etc.):


v = kTexp [– Ea/kT] .                              


Here, ħ – Planck’s constant, Еа – the activation energy, k – Boltzmann constant, and Т – the temperature.

As is seen from this formula, the acceleration of a dynamical process is possible due to an increase of the temperature. But since the value of temperature is a normalizable quantity, namely the activation energy depending on the spin state of nuclei of atoms of a metal remains uniquely accessible for the control.

Hence, by controlling the activation energy, it is possible to accelerate the technological processes in metallurgy and to decrease their energy consumption.

The studies showed that, under the transfer of a material medium (in the solid or liquid state) into the coherent state, its activation energy in thermodynamical processes can be decreased by at least 50%.

Coherence is the coordinated running of several oscillatory or wave processes in space and in time, at which the difference of phases of vibrations of atoms composing a specific physical structure remains invariable.

Coherence is the appearance of correlations (interconnections and interdependences) between elements of a system, which can be represented, for example, by a metal, and their coordinated behavior on the macrolevel. Even at small amplitudes of an external signal, the energy of a reaction of the coherent system can be quite significant.

In order to transfer a material medium in the coherent state, a certain technology was developed. According to it, the maximally possible number of spins can be gathered on a single quantum level corresponding to one of the characteristic frequencies of a material medium due to the effect of spin saturation. Due to the spin-lattice interaction, such a state leads to the macroscopic coherence of a material medium, e.g., a metal.

One method of organizing technology  annealing  of coherent steel was implemented as follows (Fig. 1).

1  — generator of spin states (GSS), 2 – resonator, 3 — chip-translator,

4 — chip-inductor, 5 — bed of furnace, 6 — furnace, 7 — steel products,

8 — pit furnace, 9 — cemented products.


After the switching-on of GSS 1, the resonator 2 is excited to the required level. Simultaneously, there occurs the excitation of chip-translator 3, which realizes the translation of a spin excitation onto chip-inductors 4 by virtue of the effect of entangled quantum states. The chip-inductors makes the spin pumping of furnace 5 and pit furnace 8, and transmits this state of steel products 7 and 9, which are transfers into the coherent state.

In the photographs Fig. 2 and 3 shows the location of chip-inductors on the sliding table of chamber furnace and gear-shaft (weight 2.4, cementation) factory Gearworks AS (Czech Republic).


The verification of the efficiency of the treatment of a coherent metal in the processes of annealing and heating was performed at the metallurgical plant “Dneprospetsstal” (Ukraine), the bearing works SKF-Poznań (Poland), the pipe works „Andrzej”, Zawadzkie (Poland), and the Częstochowa metallurgical plant (Poland). Since 2013, this technology is constantly used in the factory Vitkovice Gearworks AS (Czech Republic) during annealing steel and cementation.


Results of industrial tests


Metallurgical plantDneprospetsstal”.


The tests were carried out under the annealing of steel ShKh-15 and steel 65G in hood-type and chamber furnaces. 42 experimental processes were realized.

The indices of efficiency:

— the consumption of burned gas was decreased by 35%,

— the consumption of protecting gas was decreased by 38% (for steel ShKh-15),

— the annealing duration was decreased by 32%,

— quality of a metal: steel ShKh-15 — microstructure CG – 2.0-2.1;

hardness 200- 210 HB;

steel 65Г –  microstructure СG – 2.1-2.3; hardness 210 HB.


Parameters of the typical and coherent processes of annealing of a steel

Bearing works SKFPoznań

The tests were carried out under the annealing of steel rings of ball bearings in a through-type electric furnace РР-300.

The number of charges for annealing – 53.

The number of charges in the furnace – 18.

The periodicity of supply of charges to the furnace – 1 h.

The indices of efficiency:

  • A decrease of the electric energy consumption– 40%,
  • quality of a metal – microstructure – CG – 2.0-2.1;
  • hardness 193 – 210 HB.

On the basis of the performed experiments, we conclude the following:
1. The application of coherent effects to the processes of annealing of steels allows one to decrease the energy consumption by 40%. In the processes of annealing performed in hood-type furnaces at the stable caloricity of burned gas, the annealing duration can be reduced by a factor of 2.
  1. The study of the quality of the annealed coherent metal and its microstructural characteristics indicates their correspondence to the normative requirements.



  1. Act No. 1 on the experimental annealings of coherent steel ShKh-15 in the period from 08.09 till 05.11.1999 at the calibration shop of the “Dneprospetsstal” plant: the consumption of burned gas was decreased by 35%, the consumption of protecting gas was decreased by 38%, the annealing duration was decreased by 32%.
  2. Act No. 2 on the experimental annealings of coherent steel 65G in the period from 26.11 till 03.12.1999 at the heat-treating shop of the “Dneprospetsstal” plant: the annealing duration was reduced by 30-40%.
  3. Protocol on the experimental annealing of coherent steel rings of ball bearings on 22-23.09.2000 at the works SKF-Poznań: – a decrease of the electric energy consumption is equal to 40%.
  4. Protocol on the experimental heating of coherent steel blanks in a rotating furnace (the temperature was decreased by 50-120ОС in the first zone and by 50-80 ОС in the second one of the furnace) and on the thermal treatment of pipes (the treatment duration was reduced by 30%) at the pipe works „Andrzej”, Zawadzkie (Poland).


Dr. Viktor Krasnobryzhev, academician


Tel. +380975609593