Efficient Decrease of the Toxicity of Diesel Engines
All types of the modern transport cause a great damage to the biosphere, most dangerous being the automotive one. In the global balance of the contamination of the atmosphere, the share of the automotive transport is 13.3%. But it is as high as 80% in cities.
The contamination of the environment due to the functioning of conventional internal-combustion engines consists in the blow-out of the oxides of nitrogen, carbon, and sulphur, as well as aldehydes, hydrocarbons, and suspended particles such as aerosols. The basic principles of a decrease of the amount of dangerous exhausts from internal-combustion engines are given in work . Among them, it is worth noting the improvement of constructional parameters and operation modes (deboosting of a Diesel engine, decrease of the fuel injection advance angle, throttling on the air suction, enrichment of fuel with combustible gases and water vapor, etc.).
Diesel engines are widely used in the automotive industry. Their advantages are the high efficiency (up to 35%) and the possibility to use a cheaper fuel. However, the exhaust gases from Diesel engines are toxic and contain such cancer-producing substances as black and complex cyclic and aromatic hydrocarbons.
The results of studies performed by Swedish scientists and published in American Journal of Epidemiology indicate that exhaust gases from Diesel engines increase significantly the probability of cancer of lungs. The fuel combustion products for Diesel engines are so cancerogenic as asbestos.
The American researchers of the Cincinnati University have established that the exhaust gases from Diesel engines disturb the functioning of the immune system, by damping the activity of a number of substances determining the proper timely reaction of the immune system to the penetration of infectious agents.
In exhaust gases, hydrocarbons include the initial and reacted molecules of fuel. Of particular meaning are the exhausts of benzene, toluene, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and, in the first turn, benzpyrene. All they enter the group of cancerogenic substances, are not removed from the human organism, and promote the formation of malignant tumors.
Being stimulated by the legislations of Europe, the USA, and Asia, the producers of cars and trucks over the world make efforts aimed at a decrease of the toxicity of exhaust gases. A lot of ideas are known, but the most promising directions are reduced to three technologies: “fuel cells” (see «ABC» N2/1997)), electric motors, and hybrid engines.
Most researchers try to influence the processes of combustion, by varying the chemical composition of fuel, the amount of free radicals in it, and their energy state .
Combustion is one of the most complicated phenomena known to scientists. As is known, the combustion is a chain reaction with successive fragmentation of fuel particles into smaller charged ones with creation of radicals. The combustion involves the physico-chemical processes of transformation of the chemical energy of intermolecular bonds, the physical processes of transformation of the energy on the molecular and atomic levels into heat and light, and many other processes running simultaneously.
The reaction rate of combustion can be determined from the relation [3, 4]
K = (kT/ћ) exp(F*/F) exp(-ΔН/kT) , (1)
where k is the Boltzmann constant; T is the temperature; ν is the oscillator frequency; ћ is the Planck’s constant; F* is the statistical sum of singlet spin states per unit volume; F is the statistical sum of triplet spin states per unit volume; and ΔН is the activation enthalpy, J/g-mole.
Any chemical reaction is related to displacements of the nuclei of atoms, which compose the molecules of reagents, and to the rearrangement of their electron environment. The potential energy of a system of atoms is determined by the locations of electrons and nuclei. Since the distribution of electrons is set by the mutual position of nuclei, any such position corresponds to a single value of potential energy of a system. Any nuclear configuration corresponds to some point on the surface of the potential energy. The transition of a molecule from one surface of the potential energy onto another one is connected with a change of the electron state and/or the spin state of a molecule [5, 6].
In the reactions of combustion, the essential role is played by both molecular and spin dynamics. In elementary chemical acts, the spin dynamics influences, on the one hand, the mechanism and kinetics of a reaction. On the other hand, the spin dynamics is very sensitive to the molecular dynamics of an elementary chemical act.
It is known from the spin chemistry  that chemical reactions are controlled by two fundamental factors: energy and spin. In this case, the prohibition of chemical reactions by spin is insurmountable. If the molecules colliding in a chemical reaction have antiparallel spins (singlet state), the chemical bond is formed. If the interacting molecules have parallel spins (triplet state), then the reaction product can be formed only in the triplet excited state. Since such states have, as usual, high energies, the chemical reactions for triplet pairs are impossible in the majority of cases.
By the Wigner rule, the statistical weights for the coupling of two molecules in the singlet and triplet states are equal to 1/4 and 3/4, respectively. In most cases, the ground state of products of a chemical reaction is the singlet one. Therefore, it should be expected that only one quarter of collisions will lead to the reaction product. As a rule, such processes require no activation, i.e., the activation energy of the reaction is close to zero. The formed molecule will be in the ground electron state. The reaction is running rapidly and efficiently, if the molecule-product can transfer the energy releasing at the formation of a bond to other particles, or this energy can be redistributed over many vibrational modes.
As a special feature of the spin dynamics, we mention the possibility of a coherent control over the chemical reactions [8, 9, 10]. In coherent modes, we can expect the high yields of reactions, the selectivity of processes, the self-purification of surfaces from catalytic poisons, etc. due to an increase of the statistical weight of singlet states of colliding molecules up to 1/2. These expectations are realized, in particular, in the chemical oscillators with forced vibrations.
Let us return to Eq. (1). It is seen that the reaction rate of combustion can be enhanced due to an increase of the temperature and a decrease of the activation energy. But since the combustion temperature is practically invariable, the single possibility for the control is presented by the activation entropy Sa /k = F*/F.in the form
K = А·exp(F*/F),
where А = (kT/2πνћ)·exp(-ΔН/kT).
We now calculate the reaction rates of combustion in unit volume under conditions of the thermodynamic equilibrium for two spin states which are determined by the Wigner rule with F* = 250000; F = 750000:
K1 = А·exp(250000/750000) = 1.39 А.
For the coherent state of rteagents, we have F* = 500000; F = 500000, and
K2 = А·exp(500000/500000) = 2.73 А.
As is seen, the reaction rate of combustion increases by a factor of 2. In this case, it should be considered that this example bears the ideal character.
The specificity of spin interactions is revealed in the transfer of an ordered orientation from one system of spins to another one and in the spontaneous establishment of a single “weighted-mean” orientation of spins, which are oriented in various directions (including the case of opposite orientations). In view of the directed character of an orientational action and the possibility of the accumulation of the effect (as distinct from the chaotic perturbations), it can be sufficient for the ordering of not only micro- but also macrosystems .
This interaction is recognized by quantum mechanics, according to which the main role in the establishment of a spin-spin equilibrium is played by some specific (field) interaction of identical particles. This idea agrees with the conception of “A-fields” by R. Utiyama  asserting that each conserved independent parameter of a particle аi is asociated with the own material field Аi, which is the carrier of the interparticle interaction corresponding to the given parameter.
In practice, the coherent spin state of systems participating in chemical reactions can be attained by means of the use of a generator of spin states created on the basis of a specially organized ensemble of classical spins, where the maximal interaction energy is realized between not only adjacent spins, but also between remote spins. In this case, the system of interacting spins is a distinctive amplifier of small effects from each individual spin.
One of the methods of creation of the spin coherent state in engine fuel (EF) can be realized in the following way (Fig. 1).
1 — generator of spin states (GSS), 2 – resonator of spin states, 3 — chip-translator,
4 –fuel tank of a car, 5 – chip-inductor
In tank 4, we mounted chip-inductor 5 connected with chip-translator 3 by a quantum-coupling channel, which is formed on the basis of the physics of entangled quantum states states. The chip-translator was positioned in the resonator of spin states 2, which was connected with GSS 1. After the switching-on of GSS 1, the resonator of spin states 2 is excited to the required level. Simultaneously, there occurs the excitation of chip-translator 3, which realizes the translation of a spin excitation onto chip-inductor 5 by virtue of the effect of entangled quantum states. The chip-inductor makes the spin pumping of fuel in tank 4 and transfers it in the continuously supported spin coherent state.
The studies of the influence of the spin coherent state of Diesel fuel on the composition of exhaust gases were carried out on a testing stand at the Laboratory of internal-combustion engines of the Poznan Polytechnic Institute. The parameters of a stand engine are given in Table 1.
Parameters of the used engine
|The engine, type||Andoria 4TC90, diesel with a turbo-supercharging|
|The maximal capacity [kW/KM]||66/90 at 4100 rev/min|
|The maximal moment [Nm]||195 at 2500 rev/min|
|Diameter / course of the piston [mm]||90/95|
|Working volume of the engine [cm3]||2417|
|Degree of compression||21,1:1|
|Sequence of ignition||1-3-4-2|
|Direction of revolutions||Left|
|The fuel pump||The private soldier|
|Regulator of revolutions||Mechanical|
|Cooling of the engine||Flowing|
|Fuel||Diesel it agrees PN-EN 590:1999|
|Motor oil||Lotos Diesel API CG-4/SH SAE 15W/40|
|Climatic parameters of a premise||T = 26,50C, p = 1004 hPa|
The results of studies of the influence of the spin coherent state of Diesel fuel on the composition of exhaust gases are presented in Table 2.
Results of measurements
|Engine speed, l/min||Effective power, kW||Torsion moment,
|Fuel consumption||Emissions, mg/m3|
fuel in equilibrium state
|fuel in coherent state|
— C — – soot, CxHy — hydrocarbons, PM- solid particles
— the sign “minus” indicates a decrease of emitted products in per cent
By using the data of Table 2, we constructed a plot (Fig. 2) demonstrating a decrease of the contents of black, hydrocarbons, and solid particles in exhaust gases from burned coherent Diesel fuel at various torque moments of an engine as compared with those from noncoherent Diesel fuel.
On the same stand, we carried out the studies of the influence of the spin coherent state of Diesel fuel on the composition of exhaust gases, according to tests ECE R-49 and Euro II. By performing the statistical analysis of the results of this complex of measurements, we constructed the plots presented in Figs. 3 and 4. They show the decrease of the contents of black, hydrocarbons, solid particles in exhaust gases from burned Diesel fuel. As 100%, we took the indices accepted in tests ECE R-49 and Euro II.
As a result of the performed studies, we draw the following conclusions:
- The coherent state of Diesel fuel enhances the efficiency of its combustion, decreases the toxicity of exhaust gases, and increases the environmental safety of Diesel engines.
- The same is true in view of the results of studies by tests ECE R-49 and Euro II.
- The use of coherent Diesel fuel can be recommended for the traffic under urban conditions, since the engines of cars and trucks operate mainly in the idle mode or in the acceleration mode.
- Because the contents of NOx, CO, С, CxHy, and PM in exhaust gases of a Diesel engine operating on coherent fuel are lower than the normative requirements by ECE R-49 and Euro II, we recommend to reject the installation of filters-afterburners on engines for exhaust gases. In this case, we may expect an increase of the power of engines and a decrease of the Diesel fuel consumption.
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