NEW TECHNOLOGY FOR POWER PLANTS

NEW TECHNOLOGY FOR POWER PLANTS

 

“Technology of a Coherent Modification of Coal”

 

V.G. Krasnobryzhev

 

The deficiency of technical achievements, which would allow one to increase of the production of electric energy, is undoubtedly related to the huge volumes of burned coal and to the emission of СО2 in the atmosphere. This makes the introduction of efficient technologies of combustion of fuels to be a priority actual task of the power industry.

The process of combustion is one of the most complicated known phenomena. During this process, it is necessary to continuously supply a certain amount of energy needed for overcoming an energy barrier called the activation energy to the combustion zone. This energy is transferred from the combustion core to the supplied fuel. As a result, the ideal energy, which would be released under the burning of coal, is decreased by the value of activation energy.

The proposed technology of modification of coal is characterized by that fuel is transferred in the coherent state prior to the combustion. In the coherent state, the activation energy coal is decreased. As a result, the amount of energy, which would be continuously supplied to the combustion zone, is decreased, and this unused part is utilized directly in the process of heating of a heat-carrying agent.

The coherency is a coordinated running of several oscillatory or wave processes in space and in time, in which the phase difference of oscillations of the atoms composing a specific physical structure remains invariable.

 

Studies of the activation energy of coherent coal

 

The large body of thermogravimetric studies of coal showed that the transfer of coal in the coherent state leads to a decrease of the activation energy relative to that in the equilibrium state (Table 1). This testify that the energy barrier, which should be overcome, is decreased in the case where coal is burned in the coherent state, and, respectively, we can economize burned coal.

 

table 1

State of coal Activation energy Decreasing activation energy
the equilibrium state 378 kJ/mol 0%
the coherent state 1 260 kJ/mol 31,2%
the coherent state 2 164 kJ/mol 56,7%

 

Besides the determination of the value of activation energy, we carried out the thermogravimetric (TG) analysis to find a decrease of the mass of a probe of burned coal as a function of the increment of the temperature. The results of the analysis are shown in Table 2.

 

TG-analysis

 

table 2

The rate of heating,

oC/min

Temperature of full burning out of test of coal, ОC Difference

temperatures, OC

 

the equilibrium state

 

the coherent state

5 540 540 0
10 580 540 40
15 630 560 70

 

As is seen from Table 2, no difference for the full combustion of coal probes at Т~540oC is observed at a heating rate of 5oC/min. But, at the burning rates of 10oC/ min and 15oC/ min, the burning temperature of coherent coal decreases by 40 оС and 70 оС, respectively, as compared with that for coal in the equilibrium state.

The increase of the burning rate of coal at a lower temperature testifies to an increase of the reactivity of fuel in the coherent state and to a higher chemical activity of fuel components relative to oxygen.

The coherent state of matter is characterized by a frequency and a phase. One of the characteristics of the process of combustion is the electromagnetic emission frequency. During the process of combustion, the electromagnetic emission interacts with the atoms of fuel in the combustion zone. If the emission frequency coincides with that characteristic of the coherent state of fuel in the combustion zone (or with the frequency of one of the principal harmonics), we have a resonance, and the energy of the process of combustion increases.

In this case, the internal energy of fuel is released. This is seen from the following equation:

Er = E0 /  {1 /[1 – (ω0 / ωr)2]1/2}

 

Here, Еr and ωr are the energy and the frequency of oscillations in the resonance state, and Е0 and ω0 are the energy and the frequency of oscillations outside the of oscillations.

The less the structural distinctions of coherent coal (the coal mark, sizes of burned particles, ash content, humiodity, etc…), the higher the coherent emission energy.

Under real conditons, the interaction intensity will be significantly less due to the instability of the frequency spectrum of electromagnetic emission, which is caused by the instability of the structure and the quality of coal, fluctuations of the activation energy, etc. The less the structural difference of coherent coal depending on the coal mark, fragmentation, ash content, and humidity, the higher the coherent emission energy for burned particles of coal.

Therefore, a correction of the frequency of the coherent state of coal can lead to an enhancement of the coal burning efficiency and to a decrease of its consumption.

The determination of the burning efficiency of coherent coal in boilers of various types allowed us to find the spectra of coherent states of coal and to create a configuration of the System of coherentization of coal and to clarify the conditions of its application.

The ideology of this technical achievement is based on the macroscopic quantum nonlocality opening a way to the controlled creation of coherent states of matter and to their use in various processes and in industrial technologies. One of the distinctive features of the proposed approach consists in that the coherentization of material media can be performed without participation of local carriers of any interaction. In this case, the attainment of the coherence is represented as the limiting spin saturation of a remote object corresponding to its characteristic resonance. This coherent state is created due to the resonance energy exchange between the spin and nuclear systems.

In Fig. 1, we present the universal System of coherentization, which allows one to create the continuously supported coherent state of great volumes of coal [Patent Nr. 207357 Rzeczypospolitej Polskiej – V. Krasnobryzhev. Sposób I urządzenie do modyfikacji paliwa]. The System includes

1 – generator of spin states (GSS) – unit for the spin saturation of coal;

2 – resonator, which ensures the long-term holding of the spin coherence;

3, 4 — chip-translator and chip-inductor, a macroscopic singlet pair;

5 —    object of the coherentization – coal on the store.

 

Prior to the switching-on of the System:

  1. In the resonator, one places a material analogous to the material of the object of action. For example, if the object of action is water, the resonator is filled with water; coal – coal; steel – steel; etc.
  2. On the object of action, one mounts a chip-inductor. The chip-translator is permanently positioned in the resonator.

If the GSS is switched-on, the material medium in the resonator becomes spin-saturated. The limiting level of saturation corresponds to the spin coherent state of the material medium. Simultaneously, there occurs the spin saturation in the “chip-translator – chip-inductor – object of action” chain. As a result, the coal present at the store is transferred in the coherent state.

The GSS of the System of coherentization is technologically manufactured as a collection of modules each consisting of six (see Fig. 2). Chip-inductors (receivers-activators) are digged-in at a depth of about 1 m near the coal store (Fig. 3).

In 36 h after the switching-on of the GSS, the receivers-activators transfer coal into the coherent state.

The technology requires no operational technical or technological changes.

Experiments with the burning of coherent coal

in boilers of an electric power plant

 

  1. The first experiment was carried out at the electric power plant N1*, where about 10 mln tons of brown coal are burned for a year in 3 dust boilers and 7 fluidized-bed boilers with a power of 220-250 MW-h.

With the purpose to confirm the efficiency of the burning of coherent brown coal, we carried out the following experiments at a dust boiler of block No. 8:

а) in the equilibrium state – 04-12.02.2006;

б) in the nonstabilized coherent state– 13-16.02.2006;

в) in the stabilized coherent state– 17-20.02.2006.

In the course of experiments, about 220,000 tons of coherent coal were burned. The experimental data concerning the experiment were taken from the computer controlling system of the electric power plant and are shown in Figs. 4 and 5.

In Fig. 4, we present the plots of a variation of the emissions of СО2 and SOX as functions of the generated power.

The analysis of these plots indicates that the emission of СО2 decreased from 15% to 14.5% in the period since 17 till 20.02.2006, and the dispersion of values decreased sharply.

 

  1. The second experiment was carried out at the electric power plant N2* (Poland), where about 4 mln tons of mineral coal for a year were burned in dust boilers. The experiment was performed in two stages: in April–June of 2007 and in September–October of 2007.

The complexity of the experiment was determined by the energetic and qualitative characteristics of coal supplied to the electric power plant from 15 mines.

In this connection, on the first stage, we made a correction of the frequencies of coherent states of coal, which determine an increase of the flame emission intensity (respectively, an increase of the efficiency of the burning of coherent coal) and a decrease of its consumption.

To this end, we chose boiler No. 7, which was equipped with photoelements in its upper and lower parts for the measurement of the flame emission intensity.

In Fig. 6, we present the trend of variations of the flame luminosity in boiler No. 7 (index G) under the burning of noncoherent (01-20.04.07) and coherent coal (20.04-05.06.07). The lower curves show a variation of the flame luminosity – index G12BB03A (upper photoelement), index G12BC03A (lower photoelement). The upper curve indicates a variation of the active power of the generator – index G41N001A).

Fig. 6. The trend of variations of the flame luminosity in boiler No. 7

 

The variations of the flame luminosity shown in Fig. 6 indicate its increase under the burning of coherent coal and, respectively, a higher level of the energy release.

In addition to the above-mentioned measurements, we detected the flame temperatures in boiler No. 7 of the electric power plant under the burning of noncoherent and coherent coals. The measurements of temperatures were performed on various levels of the combustion chambers of boilers with an optical pyrometer ST-8859. The range of variations of the temperature measured by a pyrometer was from -50ОС to 1600ОC at an optical resolving power of 50:1 and the controlled emissivity from 0.1 to 1.

The data of measurements are presented in Fig. 7.

Fig. 7. Distribution of temperatures in the combustion chamber of boiler No. 7 under the burning

of noncoherent and coherent coals.

 

As a result of measurements, we found an increase of the temperature in the upper zone of a combustion chamber (26.2 m) under the burning of coherent coal as compared with that for noncoherent coal.

After the determination of the mean value of effective frequency of the coherent state, we carried out the second stage of the experiment. During the experiment, the coherent state of coal on the shores was held by chip-inductors positioned along the perimeter of the stores near their bases.

The efficiency of combustion of coherent coal on the electric power plant N2* was estimated for the dust-coal blocks Nos. 1 and 4 with a power of 250 MW since September till October of 2007. For comparison, we took the operation parameters of the blocks in August of 2007 such as the electric power yield (MWh), turns of the suppliers of coal (%) , the supply of air to boilers (%), injections of cooling water on superheaters (ton / h). The results of estimations of the efficiency are given in Tables 3 and 4.

The experimental data were taken from the computerized control systems of these blocks.

 

Comparing the results presented in Tables 3 and 4 with those related to the operation of the blocks in August (coal in the equilibrium state), we may estimate the former as positive. The decrease of the index of turns for the mills on block No. 1 was 10.8% in September and 9% in October. On block No. 4, this index decreased by 9.2% in September and by 4.2% in October.

In this case, it should be taken into account that the caloricity of coal decreased by 1.5% in September and by 3.9% in October as compared with that in August.

The coal energy consumption for the production of electric power was calculated for blocks Nos. 1 and 4. In this case, the turns of the suppliers of coal were recalculated with regard for the weight of coal supplied to a boiler.

For this purpose, we took the following files from the computerized control system of the blocks for August, September, and October: block No. 1 – А41N001A (power, MW-h — scale 250), А03Z064O (coal consumption, ton/h — scale 110); block No. 4 – D41N001A (power, MW-h — scale 250), D44Z064O (coal consumption, ton/h – scale 110).

The calculations of qualitative indices of the caloricity of burned coal (Table 5) were performed with regard for the coal supply, laboratory data on the caloricity of supplied coal, and the laboratory data on samples taken from the feed belts supplying coal to blocks of the 1-st and 2-nd groups. The difference between the 1-st and 2-nd groups consists in the addition of biofuel to coal burned in blocks of the 2-nd group.

 

The caloricity of coal supplied to the blocks of the electric power plant

 

 

Groups

power blocks

Caloric content of coal, GJ / t
August September Octobe
1 (blocks 1 – 4) 20,877 20,563 20,055
2 (blocks 5 – 8) 20,862 20,354 19,931

 

Then we determined the consumption of the chemical energy of coal on blocks Nos. 1 and 4 in the case where the generated power is >200 MW-h. The results of processing of the data obtained are given in Tables 6-8.

On the basis of averaged data on the operation of blocks No. 1 and 4, we constructed the plots of the coal energy [GJ] consumed for the production of electric energy [MW-h] (see Fig. 7). They characterize the operation of the blocks in August-October of 2007 at the generated power ≥200 MW-h. This value of power was chosen with regard for the fact that the efficiency of boilers is decreased in this case.

The analysis of the results obtained at a generated power ≥200 MW shows that the coal energy consumption for the production of electric power by block No. 1 decreased by 15.9% in September and by 12.9% in October. As for block No. 4, this diminution was 10.4% in September and 7.4% in October.

At the same time, the decrease of the supply of air to a boiler causes an increase of the coal energy consumption. On block No. 1, the former decreased by 3% in September and by 5.2% in October.

In order to compare the results of calculations given in Tables 6-8 and presented in Fig. 8, we show the characteristic dependences of the coal consumption on the generated power (files А  А41N001A, А03Z064O and А  D41N001A, D44Z064O) in the period from 01.08 till 30.09.2007 in Figs. 9-10 (block No. 1) and 11-12 (block No. 4). The data in Fig. 9-12 indicate the tendencies in the coal energy consumption under the production of electric power analogous to those in Fig. 8.

Besides blocks Nos. 1 and 4, we carried out the evaluation of the efficiency of the burning of coherent coal in September- October relative to that in August in boilers of the 2-nd groups — blocks Nos. 5 and 7. To this end, we determined the consumption of the energy of burned coal at the generated power >200 MW-h, by using the amount of burned coal, ton/month; caloricity of coal, GJ/ton; the amount of burned biomass, ton/month; caloricity of biomass, GJ/ton; the energy of fuel, GJ; and the production of electric power, MW.

The calculations were performed in the following sequence: the energy of fuel (GJ) = caloricity of coal (GJ/ton) × amount of burned coal (tons) + caloricity of biofuel (GJ/ton) × amount of burned biofuel (tons); the monthly consumption of the fuel energy (MJ/MW) = energy of fuel (GJ) / production of electric power, MW

In Table 9, we present the generalized data on the monthly consumption of the fuel energy multiplied by the generated power on blocks Nos. 5 and 7.

 

Table 9

 

Parameter

Month
August September Octobe
Consumption of coal, in tons 104218 92028 166191
Caloric content of coal, GJ / t 20,856 20,248 20,125
Consumption of biomass, tonnes 8190 7865 14871
Caloric content of biomass, GJ / t 14,715 11,87 10,47
The energy of the fuel, GJ 2294201 1956753 3299851
Production of electricity, MW 236580 211592 375727
The energy consumption of fuel, GJ/MWh 9,7 9,25 9,3
Efficiency,% 4,9 4,3

 

Table 9 indicates that a decrease of the energy consumption for coherent coal under the joint burning with biomass is insignificant. First of all this is connected with a decrease of the amount of air supplied in the process of combustion. In Fig. 13, we present the variations of the air supply (m3/MW-h ) to boilers of blocks Nos. 5 and 7. The comparison of the variations of these characteristics shows that, starting from August, their value decreased continuously and attained the minimum in September.

On the whole, the decrease of the air supply in September relative to August was 4.3% for block No. 5 and 2.6% for block No. 7. In this case, the content of oxygen in exhaust gases of a boiler of block No. 7 decreased by 8.4% in September and by 7% in October.

 

CONCLUSIONS

 

  1. By performing the experiments on the burning of coherent coal in boilers of the electric power plants, we obtained the following results:
  2. In the pilot experiment on the burning of coherent brown coal on the electric power plant N1* in the period from 13 till 20.02.06, the emissions of СО2, NOX, and SOX were decreased by 13%, 16%, and 16%, respectively.
  3. The experiment on the burning of coherent mineral coal in the period from 01 till 30.10.2007 on the electric power plant N2* is characterized by the following efficiency:

— about 500 thou. tons of mineral coal were transferred in the coherent state on the stores of the electric power plant;

— the coal energy consumption at the production of electric power on blocks Nos. 1 and 4 decreased by ~16% in September relative to August and by 12.1% and 8.4%, respectively, in October at the generated power >200 MW-h. At the same time, the decrease of the supply of air to a boiler causes an increase of the coal energy consumption. On block No. 1, the former decreased by 3% in September and by 5.2% in October.

— the coal energy consumption on blocks Nos. 5 — 7 decreased by 4.9% in September and by 4.3 % in October relative to August.

  1. The estimation of the experimental results shows that the consumption of coal can be really decreased by 25%. For this purpose, it is necessary:

— to develop an algorithm of the control over the functioning of the suppliers of coal to boilers with regard for variations of the temperature in the flame core;

— to mount the photoelements in boilers for the registration of variations of the temperature in the flame core;

— to use coal with a caloricity of 20-20.5 GJ /ton in the process of combustion.

 

Information sources:

  1. Data on the supply of coal to blocks – the Department of coal preparation.
  2. Reports on the supply of coal to blocks Nos. 1-4 and the data on the amount of burned coal — the Department of coal preparation and the dispatching offices of blocks Nos. 1 and 4.
  3. Data on the caloricity of supplied coal and the caloricity of coal on stores — Laboratory and the Department of coal preparation.
  4. Data on the mean hourly generated power, supply rate, air supply, amount of oxygen in exhaust gases from boilers, injected cooling water at the control over the temperature of superheated steam, reports on the production of electric power at the electric power plant N2*, the Departments of control over the exploitation and environment protection.

 

References

 

  1. N.I. Davydov, Study of a system of regulation of the temperature of steam with two advancing high-speed signals, Teploenerg., No. 10, 2002, 17-21.

2 N.M. Kalinina, V.I. Nifad’ev. Procesy  samoorganizacii v detonacionnoy

volne nizkoplotnyh vzryvchatyh veschestv.  http://spkurdyumov.narod.ru/Kalinina10/Kalinina.htm

  1. Cyril W. Smith, Quanta and Coherence Effects in Water and Living Systems, J. of Altern. and Complement. Medic., 2004, 10(1), 69-78.
  2. A.L. Buchachenko, Chemistry as Music, Tambov: Nobelistika, 2004. 6.

 

Viktor Krasnobryzhev,

 

e-mail:

vkentron@gmail.com

Tel. +380975609593.