Properties of a Coherent Coal
The method is developed for the creation of coherent coal and carried out of experiments on studying the change of properties of coherent coal. After coal transition to coherent state the decrease of activation energy being in twice took place.
The coherence phenomenon is widely practiced for the description of physical states of a substance joined by the common feature being the ranking and coordination of the behavior of great number of substance elements. The coherent of collective quantum interactions of a physical structure can cause the appearance of absolutely new physical properties of a substance which make it possible to use it in various forms and on a commercial scale.
It can be expected the increase of reaction yields, selectivity of processes, self-purification of surfaces from catalyst poisons, diffusion processes acceleration etc. And these expectations have been confirmed especially in the case of chemical oscillators with forced oscillations [1-3]. The realizing of the fact that macroscopic coherence is a fundamental property has appeared not long ago and it has stimulated the actively progressing interest.
Thermogravimetric Investigation of Coherent Matter
Not only molecular but also spin dynamics playing a double part in elementary chemical acts is of great importance in combustion reactions. On the one hand it affects actively the reaction mechanism and kinetics by activation energy. On the other hand spin dynamics reacts very sensitively to the molecular dynamics of an elementary chemical act.
In order to explain the issue of the possibility of coherent control over chemical reactions, passing between two states should be analyzed. By the motion along the reaction coordinate from initial state to final one molecular system will pass through superposition of state . Let at initial time T = 0 a system is in the state 1 of energy E1 and let there is the state 2 of energy E2 equal to E1 i.e. E2 = E1, while the state E2, corresponds to the coherent state (Fig. 1).
Fig. 1. The distribution of molecular energy systems, according to Maxwell-Boltzmann:
where E1 — energy of the system (integral area) in the equilibrium state, E2 — energy of
the system (the integral of the square) in a coherent state.
Let us assume that these two states are connected with transition matrix equal to V by some interaction. We shall consider the probability p(t) to find the system in the state 2 at any instant of time. This probability time dependence depends strongly upon coherence. If the transition from initial state 1 to final state 2 occurs in an incoherent way in the course of time the equalizing of these states population takes place. After the achievement at p = 1/2 in the future these states populations conserve value 1/2. In the case of coherent motion unknown probability is equal to
P = sin2 (Vt / ћ).
The following two conditions are absolutely remarkable:
- This probability oscillates i.e. it does not change monotonically as it is expected in the case of coherent motion.
- This probability achieves the value 1 at some instants of time. When this probability becomes equal to 1/2 by Vt / ћ = π/4 the two states turn out to be equipopulated. The transition from initial state to final one continues as if from force of inertia until the system complete transition to the state 2 and so on. This example demonstrates that quantum coherence can play very important role in transition processes, chemical reaction and combustion processes.
A fuel coherent state can effect actively the kinetics of combustion processes. In the same time activation energy plays an important role in combustion processes. Its value can be determined by means of the “Free Kinetics” model, which makes it possible to carry out exact calculations for complex reactions such as combustion process.
The model is based on the theory of dr. S. Vyazovkin claiming that conversion function f(α) and activation energy are constants for some variables. Three dynamic curves with various heating rates (β) are required for the “Free Kinetics” model calculation.
The experiments on the influence of the coherent state of fuel on its activation energy was carried out on powdered brown coal with a grain size of 1 — 1.2 mm. Organic component content was 84,4%, hydroscopic humidity – 4,1%. The determination of activation energy value was carried out by means of the termogravimeter GA/SDTA/851e of the Mettler Toledo firm.
The results of the measurements of brown coal activation energy in coherent state (the graph left side) and decoherization state (the graph right side) are given in Fig. 1a. Maximum value of activation energy has been determined for coal being in equilibrium state. After coal transition to coherent state the decrease of activation energy from 378 kJ/mol down to 163,6 kJ/mol being 56,7% took place. It demonstrates the decrease of energy barrier which must be surmounted by coal combustion in coherent state. The following measurement were carried out in two days after the beginning of the process of coal decoherence. In spite of this process beginning the following decrease of coal energy activation for 16,6% (with respect to coherent state level) is noted.
The measurement carried out on the 7-th day of decoherence process demonstrated for the first time the increase of the value of activation energy but its level was close to the value of corresponding coherent state. This parameter considerable increase was observed only in 10 days after the beginning of decoherence process. In spite of so long decoherence time the return to equilibrium state level did not take place.
Odd behavior of activation energy caused by decoherence can be a consequence of the following processes. The coherent state of coal grains causes solitons forming and is necessary for their stable existence. Decoherence process is accompanied not only by dissipation but useful power conversion.
Internal work being done in this case causes maintaining temporary order in the system. Here, the rate of solitons energy exchange with medium exceeds the rate of energy dissipation in medium. This causes observed activation energy decrease. Further decoherence causes the decrease of the rate of energy exchange of solution with medium, their dissipation and activation energy increase.
Besides the determination of activation energy value the additional analyses of TG (thermogravimetric) curves is carried out. These curves represent the decrease of sample mass (mass ~ 0,3 g) (Y axis is left) corresponding to the level of coal conversion as a function of temperature increase (Y axis is right). The sequence of the process under investigation has been realized by three heating rates 5ºC/min (black line), 10ºC/min (red line) and 15 º C/min (blue line) both for coal being in equilibrium state and in coherent state and given in Fig. 1b.
From the given dependences it is obvious that the temperatures under which coal conversion process ceases are different by variable heating rates. Under heating rate α = 5ºC/min the coal sample total burn out takes place under 540ºC approximately.
Higher temperature (~580ºC) of total coal sample burn out was required by the process under heating rate α = 10ºC/min. Under heating rate α = 15ºC/min the temperature of coal conversion was 630ºC approximately.
Such regularity was not observed during the tests being carried out with coal in coherent state. Total burn out of the given coal portions in this place occurred under low temperature independently of the given sample heating rate.
Under heating rate α = 10ºC/min it is obvious that total coal conversion in equilibrium state takes place under ~580ºC whereas in the case of coal being in coherent state conversion temperature is 40ºC below (~540ºC).
The similar dependence can be observed under heating rate α = 15ºC/min. Maximum degree of coal burn out in equilibrium state is achieved under 630ºC, whereas for coal in coherent state this temperature is 560 ºC (Δt = 70 ºC). This tendency is connected without doubt with the decrease of activation energy determined for coal coherent state.
In addition to the TG analyses we shall trace the trend of DTG (differential thermogravimetric) curves being the first derivative in the equations describing the describing the decrease of coal samples mass as a function of temperature. Temperature values corresponding to the function sequential extremes determine here the amplitudes characterized by the highest rate of physical and chemical changes taking place. In the used system X axis corresponds to temperature and the Y axis – process rate which corresponds to the tilt angle of TG curves.
The DTG curves represented in Fig. 1c respond directly the represented above trend of the TG curves for the process of coal combustion in equilibrium and coherent states for three heating rates – 5ºC/min (black line), 10ºC/min (red line), 15 º C/min (blue line).
The first minima demonstrated in Fig. 1c within temperature range 67-96ºC correspond to the process of moisture (hygroscopic) evaporation and will not be taken into account in the following analysis because they do not contribute to the information concerning the influence of coal coherent state upon the process of its burning up.
The behavior chemically decontaminated coke forming by coal sample degassing during its burning up. In this case it is necessary to note that for the coal being in equilibrium state temperature values corresponding to extremes (corresponding to coke burning up) are within wide enough range 395-467ºC (ΔT = 72ºC) in contrast to narrow range 380-397ºC (ΔT = 17ºC) characterizing the samples of coal in coherent state.
In demonstrates the increase of coal reactivity above 300ºC to be exact. These transfers are obvious however on the X axis only where ordinate values corresponding to curve maxima for equal heating rates in these states come together i.e. about 0,1 mg/ºC for α = 15ºC/min, 0,13 mg/ºC for α = 10ºC/min, 0,17 mg/ºC for α = 5ºC/min. It follows from the fact that maximum rates of the process of burning up achieved for these two states of coal are comparable but for coal being in coherent state they are realized under lower temperatures.
As previously by the TG curves analyses for low heating rate (α = 15ºC/min) temperature difference is not observed for the extremes of the curves describing the process of coal burning up in equilibrium and coherent states. In this case the ΔT value takes on a value ~13ºC as temperature difference 381-394ºC. The great difference takes place under heating rate α = 10ºC/min — 41ºC (424-383ºC). The greatest difference is observed under α = 15ºC/min when ΔT achieved the value of 70ºC (467-397ºC).
As a result of the carried out experiments the confirmation is obtained concerning the opportunity to create coherent state of matter and keep this state up during unlimited time. After coal transition to coherent state the decrease of activation energy being ~57% took place. The system of “industrial resources” of coherent matter is created. The important feature of the created system is a decrease of energy carriers consumption and reduction of greenhouse effect gas emission into the atmosphere. The use of a coherent state of matter in the complex of other measures of wildlife preservation can reduce effectively environmental impact of greenhouse effect gases and oppose global getting warmer.
References and Notes
- G. Kothe, M. Bechtold, G. Link, E. Ohmes, J. -U. Weidne. // Chem. Phys. Lett., 283, 51 (1998)
- W. Hohmann, D. Lebender, J. Muller, N. Schinor, F. Schneider. // J. Phys. Chem. A, 101, 9132 (1997)
- A.L. Buchachenko. // Coherent chemistry. Moscow, 2002.
- К. М. Salikhov. 10 lectures on spin chemistry./ Chemistry and Computational Simulation. Butlerov Communications. 2001. Vol.1. No.4.