The Global Resource of Macroscopic Quantum Nonlocality
We have shown experimentally that the macroscopic quantum nonlocality is objective and can be determined by classical methods such as Nuclear Magnetic resonance spectrometry, the measurement of the absorption of light by water in the ultraviolet range and changes in the differential resistance and the electric capacitance of water as functions of the frequency of a current passing through it, and the thermogravimetry of changes in the activation energy due to the creation of a stable coherent state in a remote macroscopic object.
In recent years the achievements of experimental and theoretical studies of quantum nonlocality have transformed themselves into a completely new paradigm of reality. Already today one can assert that those achievements will gradually lead to profound changes in the comprehension of the physical reality.
Macroscopic quantum nonlocality, as a particular type of interaction, is a global intrinsic property of the classical world which arose, according to the cosmological theory of decoherence [1, 2], from a nonlocal source of reality.
This hypothesis has been confirmed by results of physical experiments carried out during the last few years, which convincingly prove the presence of a quantum entanglement in macroscopic systems. This fact allows for the far reaching conclusion that the entanglement of many various degrees of freedom in macroscopic systems has a significant fundamental and philosophical sense by challenging the basic ideas of the nature of the physical reality .
It is obvious that the time has come when the objective results of experimental studies help scientists to direct their efforts towards the practical use of a fundamentally new nonlocal resource, by opening a path from fundamental nonlocal reality to classical reality.
Entanglement in a macroscopic medium and suppression of decoherence
Macroscopic entanglement is based on quantum entanglement and manifests itself as a correlation of internal degrees of freedom without the intervention of local carriers of interaction.
Despite successes achieved in the development of the successive theory of entangled states [4, 5, 6, 7], the necessary condition for its application is the availability of a measuring tool allowing one to identify elements of it’s physical reality. This condition has focused the efforts of theoretical and experimental physicists on applied studies that means on the comprehension of the role of macroscopic entanglement in nature and on the use of this nonlocal resource [8, 9, 10].
Consistency, as a feature of quantum entanglement, has been confirmed by well-known experiments concerning macroscopic entanglement, which show that a system is the integral whole by spin degrees of freedom , and that quantum correlations not only determine the behavior of the macroscopic system but turn out stronger than the classical ones .
The results of studies presented hereafter are based on the fact that the states of entangled objects are independent of measurements performed on them, which allows one to manipulate the quantum entanglement of remote objects. At the beginning, these objects represent an integral system that is entangled by the internal spin degrees of freedom. After the division of the object into parts and their removal from one another, a certain part of subsystems of their common system belongs equally to these objects. The correlation of their spin degrees of freedom is conserved irrespective of the distance between the separated parts of the system, and the behaviors of spins in these parts are consistent.
The main reason preventing the use of the global resource of macroscopic entanglement is related to the problem of decoherence [13, 14, 15]. In order to solve this problem, the method of suppression of decoherence is being proposed here. It is based on the use of an anisotropic single crystal with oriented nuclei as a nonseparable system, where the behaviors of spin degrees of freedom are consistent.
Let us consider the system of oriented nuclei in an anisotropic single crystal. By Ή, we denote the energy operator of this system. The stationary (eigen-) states ψk and the energy levels of these stationary states Ek can be found by solving the Schrödinger equation .
According to quantum mechanics, the system can be in a state characterized by a linear superposition of stationary states
The measured quantity is the squared modulus of the wave function
This quantity consists of two parts. The first part of the equation characterizes the populations |ck|2 of stationary states ψk in a linear superposition. The second part indicates that the contributions of different stationary states to the observed value interfere with one another and the quantities c*nck (n ¹ k) characterize a coherent state of the quantum system.
The energy of an anisotropic single crystal can be expressed in terms of an analog of the “spin excess” . In particular, we assign the maximum value of energy of the single crystal to the state denoted by |111…1ñ. If the single crystal interacts with a local object, whose energy state is |000…00ñ, and then the energy gradient between them will be at a maximum. In this case, the energy is redistributed between the single crystal with energy Е1 and the local object with energy Е2, so that the total energy Е is invariable . As a result, the energy flow drives the “single crystal – object” system into the superpositional nonseparable state In this case, decoherence does not occur.
Composition and the principle of action of a system of the teleportation of spin states
While developing the idea of the creation of the global resource of macroscopic quantum nonlocality, a System of Teleportation of Spin States was constructed. This system allows for the production of a continuously supported coherent state in a remote macroscopic object . Moreover, the attainment of the coherence is represented as the limiting spin saturation of the remote object, which corresponds to its characteristic frequency and is attained due to the resonance exchange by energy between the spin and nuclear systems.
In Fig. 1, we give the scheme of the System of the Teleportation of Spin States (below, we will write the System). The System includes:
- A Generator of Spin States (GSS), which is a unit on the basis of a single crystal with a preferred orientation of nuclear spins.
- A Resonator, which ensures the spin saturation and the long-term conservation of spin coherence.
- A Chip-translator and a chip-inducer, which form a macroscopic singlet couple made of a material with translational symmetry.
- A Remote object of teleportation action.
Action principle of the System:
- In the resonator, one places a material analogous to the material of the object of action. For example, if the object of action is water, coal, or steel, one places water, coal, or steel respectively in the resonator.
- A chip-inducer is fixed on the object of action. A chip-translator is constantly present in the resonator.
When the GSS is switched on, spin saturation of the material medium in the resonator happens. The limiting level of saturation corresponds to the spin coherent state of the material medium. Simultaneously spin saturation in the “chip-translator – chip-inducer – object of action” chain occurs. This results in the coupling of the resonator and the object of action, so that the remote object transits in the coherent state. After this procedure, the remote object can be subjected to a target application.
In what follows, we describe the following themes:
- NMR spectrometry of macroscopic nonlocality.
- Properties of water in the state of macroscopic nonlocality.
- Activation energy of coal in the state of macroscopic nonlocality.
- Teleportation of properties of vaccines.
NMR studies of macroscopic nonlocality
The experiment was carried out with the use of a System for the Teleportation of Spin States (Fig. 1) and an NMR-spectrometer. During the experiment, we measured the time of relaxation of the transverse component Т1 (spin-lattice relaxation). As an object of study, we choose hydrogen-containing samples such as gasoline and Diesel fuel. Prior to the experiment, we had measured the relaxation time of the transverse component Т1 of the samples in the equilibrium state. Then, in agreement with the scheme shown in Fig. 1, the substance under study was filled in flasks with chip-inducers attached to them. The generator of spin states, a resonator, and a chip-translator were at a distance of 40 km from an NMR-spectrometer. After switching on the GSS, the samples in the flasks were transferred into the coherent state during 12 h. Then a sample of the substance was filled in a test tube and placed in an NMR-spectrometer to measure the time Т1.
The processing of the results of measurements was made with the software PeakFitТМ. The experimental results are presented in Table 1.
Table 1| The results of measurements of the relaxation time of the transverse component Т1
|the relaxation time, ms|
|the equilibrium state||the coheren state|
The experimental results indicate:
- The relaxation time of the transverse component Т1 of samples in the coherent state is different from that of a sample in the equilibrium state and exceeds the systematic error of measurements.
- The teleportation of spin states at a distance of 40 km is realized.
Properties of water in the state of macroscopic nonlocality
As is known, an external electric field polarizes a medium, where an additional electric field compensating the external one arises. In other words, if a light beam passes through water, water actively interacts with light by nonlinearly absorbing it. In this case, the maximum absorption is observed in the ultraviolet range. In our studies, we used drinking water, which was transferred into the coherent state with the help of the system of the teleportation of spin states (Fig. 1). The transition time in the coherent state for water was equal to 12 h. The generator of spin states, a resonator, and a chip-translator were at a distance of 10 km from the object of studies.
Characteristics of water: Acid-base balance (рН) = 7.8, Electric conductivity σ = 1020 (μSm), Total dissolved solids (TDS) = 1150 (mg/liter), The oxidation/reduction potential (ORP) = +142 (mV)
We studied the absorption spectra of coherent or noncoherent water in the ultraviolet (UV) range with the help of a spectrophotometer Libra S22 UV/Vis (Biochrom Ltd.) and relative variations of the differential resistance and the electric capacitance of samples of water as functions of the frequency.
All measurements were executed relative to the control sample of water at a temperature of 293 K. The results of these studies are presented in Fig. 2.
Figure 2 | Influence of the teleportation of spin states on the properties of water: a – change in the absorption of UV radiation by water (1 – water in the equilibrium state, 2 – water in the coherent state), b – relative differential resistance of water R0/Rc versus the frequency of a current passing through water, where R0 – resistance of water in the equilibrium state, Rc – resistance of water in the coherent state; c –relative variation in the electric capacitance of water versus the frequency, where С0 – capacitance of water in the equilibrium state, Cc – capacitance of water in the coherent state.
Fig. 2a shows that the absorption spectra of coherent water differ significantly from those of noncoherent water. These UV spectral sections of the absorption of water occupy the interval of wavelengths 200 – 240 nm. The absorption in this spectral interval is formed by the optical transitions with participation of oscillations of molecules of water and admixtures. The absorption spectrum, like the dependence of the coefficient of absorption on the light wavelength (the energy of photons), is described by the exponential dependence at the given temperature, i.e. the shape of the absorption spectrum obeys the Urbach rule .
In Fig. 2b we show the variation of the differential resistance of samples of noncoherent water relative to that for coherent water (R0/Rc) as a function of the frequency of a current passing through water. As one can see, coherent water manifests a wide dispersion band for R0/Rc in the interval 2.7 – 10.2 Hz. The registered decrease of the differential resistance is analogous to the property of negatronic systems.
In Fig. 2c, we present the variation of the electric capacitance of samples of coherent water relative to that of water in the equilibrium state (Сc/С0) as a function of the frequency. Remark the wide dispersion band with a maximum at 100 Hz.
The performed studies indicate that water transits in the coherent state due to the teleportation of spin states. This increases the nonlinear absorption of water in the UV range and causes both the appearance of the negative differential resistance and an increase in the electric capacitance, which can be measured by classical methods.
Activation energy of coal in the state of macroscopic nonlocality
In our studies, we used brown coal, which was transferred in the coherent state with the help of the System of the teleportation of spin states (Fig. 1). The GSS, a resonator, and a chip-translator were at a distance of 70 km from a laboratory. The duration of the transition in the coherent state for coal was 12 h. The size of coal grains was 1 – 1.2 mm. The content of the organic component was 80.3%, and the hygroscopic humidity was 4.1%.
We studied the variation of the coal activation energy at its transition in the coherent state. The value of activation energy was determined with the help of the “Free Kinetics” model, which allows one to carry out exact calculations for such complicated reaction as combustion.
The model is based on the theory by S. Vyazovkin [20, 21], in which the conversion function f(a) and the activation energy are constants under conditions where some other parameters vary. In calculations within this model, three dynamical curves with different rates of cooling (b) are required.
The determination of the activation energy was performed with the help of a thermogravimeter TGA/SDTA/851e of the Mettler Toledo firm.
As a result of the transit of coal into the coherent state, we obtained a decrease of the activation energy by 56.7% relative to that in the equilibrium state (Table 2). This testifies to a decrease of the energy barrier that should be overcome in the case where coal burns in the coherent state.
Table 2 | The values of coal activation energy in the equilibrium and coherent states
State of coal
|the equilibrium state||378 kJ/mol||0%|
|the coheren state||164 kJ/mol||56,6%|
In order to confirm the correctness of the determination of the activation energy, we carried out the thermogravimetric (TG) analysis which reveals a decrease in the mass of a specimen of burning coal as a function of the temperature increment. The results of this analysis are shown in Table 3.
Table 3| Results of the TG analysis
The rate of heating,
|Temperature of full burning out of test of coal, ОC||Difference
the equilibrium state
the coheren state
As is seen in Table 3, coal burns identically in both states at the rate of heating equal to 5oC/min (Т ~540oC). At the rates of combustion equal to 10oC/min and 15oC/min, we observed a decrease in the burning temperature of coherent coal by 40оС and 70оС, respectively, relative to that of coal in the equilibrium state. An increase in the coal combustion rate at the lower temperature testifies to a growth of the reactivity of fuel in the coherent state and to its greater chemical activity to oxygen, which is related to a decrease in the activation energy.
A system of quantum communication
The quantum (teleportation) communication is realized instantly irrespective of the distance between the transmitting and receiving Systems. The main elements of these Systems are a chip-translator (transmitter) and a chip-inductor (receiver), which are quantum-mechanically entangled by spin and are formed from a macroscopic matrix of spin-entangled nuclei.
When the spin state of the nuclei of atoms of the chip-translator is changed, the spin states of the nuclei of atoms of the chip-inductor are also simultaneously changed. In this case, the exchange by spin states (information) between the chip-translator and the chip-inductor occurs instantly without any field carriers and is independent of the distance..
Such a type of communication is considered to be trivial, since the entangled nuclei of atoms of the chip-translator and the chip-inductor have the common wave function.
In Fig. 1, we show the scheme of the experimental System of quantum communication. In this system, we used the universal system of teleportation of spin states similarly to other technologies.
1 – generator of spin states (GSS), 2 – resonator, 3 – chip-translator А,
4 – chip-translator В, 5 – chip-inductor, 6 – spectral analyzer, 7 – generator.
The System of quantum communication includes:
GSS 1, resonator 2, chip-translator А 3, chip-translator В 4, which is a dielectric of capacitor С1, chip-inductor 5, which is a dielectric of capacitor С2 , spectral analyzer 6, whose input is connected with capacitor С2, generator 7 connected with capacitor С1, In this case, chip-translator 3, chip-translator 4, and chip-inductor 5 are entangled by spin.
As a dielectric material, we used: a) water. b) textolite, c) ceramics.
The details of the experiments are as follows:
- The spectral analyzer, whose input is connected with capacitor С2, was positioned at a distance of 10 km from the generator connected with capacitor С1 and from GSS and the resonator.
- In the resonator, we placed a dielectric material (e.g., ceramics) and mounted chip-translator А 3.
- After the switching-on of GSS, the resonator, chip-translators 3 and 4, and chip-inductor 5 were transferred in the coherent state.
- The sequence of the action of the generator on capacitor С1:
- a) dielectric material is water – the high-voltage generator is switched-on in 5 sec after the spectral analyzer. The action was high-voltage discrete for 5 sec. The spectra are given in 2.
- b) dielectric material is textolite – the high-voltage generator is switched-on in 5 sec after the spectral analyzer. The high-voltage action was of the Morse-code type. The spectra are given in 3.
- a) the dielectric material was ceramics; the generator was switched-on in 5 sec after the spectral analyzer. We used the vocal and musical actions for 5 sec. The spectra are presented in 4.
Macroscopic nonlocality and teleportation of properties of vaccines
The principle of action of the System is based on the teleportation of spin spatial configurations (replicas) of protein fragments of vaccines to the organism of an object of vaccination (a percipient) by inducing the appropriate immune response in it. In this case, the body of a percipient is transferred in the coherent state at a characteristic frequency of water, because 70% of the body consists of water.
The teleported information (state) interacts in the body of a percipient with a supermolecular water ensemble in the near-cell “small matrix” containing also glycoproteins in a concentration of ~10-8М. This ensemble determines the functional ability of the “small matrix” to receive and to propagate the information signals coming from the outside to cell receptors. This results in the fabrication of appropriate antibodies by immunocompetent cells.
We then introduced the following changes in the sequence of applications of the System for the teleportation shown in Fig. 1: we poured water in the resonator with a chip-translator and transfered it into the coherent state, then we introduced a single dose of vaccine into the water and obtained a 5×10-5 М solution. After that, we mounted a chip-inducer onto the body of an object of vaccination. The System for the teleportation was positioned at a distance of 10 km from the objects under study. In all cases the duration of the continuous teleportation action was equal to 36 h.
For the teleportation, the following vaccines were used:
— vaccine “Influvac” for the prophylaxis of influenza, which was produced by “Solvay Pharma” (the Netherlands) and contained hemagglutinin and neuraminidase of viral strains А10/99(Н3N2), А20/99 (H1N1), and В379/99;
— vaccine “Twinrix” for the prophylaxis of hepatitis А or В, which was produced by “SmithKline Beecham Biologicals S.A.”.
The teleportation was realized onto human organisms (volunteers) and onto laboratory animals (rabbits):
- a) vaccine “Influvac” — onto 5 rabbits,
- b) vaccines “Influvac” and “Twinrix” — onto 5
The results of experiments were estimated by the presence of appropriate antibodies in biological objects and by the rate of formation of the relevant immune response (under normal conditions of vaccination the immune response is realized in 7-10 days).
In Table 4, we present the obtained results of titration of the analyzed samples of blood of the objects of the teleportational vaccination for the presence of specific antibodies.
Table 5| Results of titration of blood samples under the teleportational vaccination of organisms
Object of influence
|Quantity of antibodies on an antigene (un / ml)|
|Vaccine «Influvac»||Vaccine «Twinrix»|
in 36 hour
in 8 days
in 14 days
in 36 hour
C – control indices; TV – indices after the teleportational vaccination.
* — in the immunological practice, the immune response of organism to antigen НА is determined only in the form negative or positive.
The immune response of organisms was realized in 36 h instead of 7-10 days.
The reason for the absence of the immune response to protein fragment HbsAg is not known yet, but the practice of vaccination testifies that the full immunization of human organism occurs in 6 months after 3 injections.
The rapidity of the teleportational vaccination effect can be explained by the participation of the maximum pool of the organism’s lymphocytes in the realization of an immune response and by omitting the process of cloning. The spin replicas which are translated into the vaccination object play the role of a “master-key” intensifying the process of immunization.
Conclusions and perspective
As a result of these studies, we have established that the macroscopic quantum nonlocality is the objective reality and that the word ”quantum” indicates that the state of a system under study can be described by quantum methods, for example, with the density matrix method.
The main property of the resource of macroscopic quantum nonlocality consists in the fact that the teleportation of spin states onto a remote macroscopic object (located at infinity) creates a continuously supported coherent state in it. As a result, such an object can be used to enhance the efficiency of already available and also of future technologies.
We are convinced that the development of negatronic miniature devices aimed at the realization of teleportational communication at unlimited distances is possible.
The fabrication of highly efficient photochemical generators of hydrogen with the use of coherent water, catalysts and UV radiation in the interval 170-180 nm is promising.
Our study also opens the way for the teleportation of properties of medicinal preparations, including the teleportation of vaccines, which is especially important under conditions of space flight.
As a result of complex experiments executed on some heat and electric power plants we obtained a decrease of the consumption of coherent coal in the production of electric power of 16 % on average with the corresponding decrease in emissions of СО2 into the atmosphere. In this case, ~ 500,000 tons of coals were transferred into the continuously supported coherent state.
Also the consumption of energy at the recrystallization annealing steel of coherent state was decreased by 36-40%.
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